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  • After a decade of political and economic crisis between and

    2019-04-19

    After a decade of political and economic crisis between 1999 and 2010, health education in Zimbabwe was in a desperate state and required a major overhaul. UZCHS reported a 60% decrease in medical student enrolment, a 61% faculty vacancy rate, a 50% increase in failure rate, and the specialist training pipeline had virtually dried up. Moreover, the curriculum of UZCHS had not been revised since 1992 and the information communication technology infrastructure and services needed urgent expansion and improvement.
    In a ground-breaking development on Oct 6, 2016, the Pakistani Parliament unanimously approved anti-rape and anti-honour-killing bills that Exendin-3 (9-39) amide introduce stricter punishment for the perpetrators of such crimes. Women in Pakistan, despite accounting for an estimated 52% of the country\'s population, receive little or no protection from the state in cases of honour killing—in which the female victim is killed by a relative—as previously the perpetrator could officially seek forgiveness from the victim\'s family, thereby avoiding all legal consequences. Similarly, the number of rape convictions in Pakistan is extremely low, mostly because of the law\'s reliance on circumstantial evidence and refusal to accept forensic proof as primary evidence. The new legislation has tackled both of these problems directly. The provision of DNA testing for both the rape victim and the alleged perpetrator has been included in the anti-rape legislation, which also demands the death penalty for the rape of minors and individuals with mental or physical illnesses. Public servants found guilty of using their official position to commit rape will also be given the death penalty, and individuals who disregard or sabotage rape investigations will be sentenced to 3 years in prison, given a fine, or both. Rape trials will be conducted on camera and victims will be afforded privacy and security by the barring of publicity regarding their identity and use of videotaping to record their statements. The anti-rape legislation will also discard provisions in the previous law that allowed the victim\'s character to be questioned, so that sex workers are afforded equal protection. The anti-honour-killing legislation has encouraged judges to sentence accused murderers to life imprisonment, even if an official pardon is provided by the victim\'s family. Records show that more than 700 women were killed for honour in Pakistan in 2014. The new changes in the existing laws follow a series of attacks against women in 2016 alone, including the brutal honour killing of Qandeel Baloch, a popular Pakistani social media personality, by her brother, which sparked worldwide condemnation and protest. Sharmeen Obaid Chinoy, who filmed an Oscar-winning documentary on honour killings in Pakistan, has also called for swift adoption of these pieces of legislation to bring about justice for Pakistani women. Furthermore, the Prime Minister of Pakistan has promised nationwide implementation of these laws as the empowerment of women, their protection, and emancipation are essential for the equal contribution of both genders to the country\'s prosperity and development.
    Lancet Glob Health —In figure 1 of Replicative transposition Article, the last line of the excluded patients box should read “4 incorrectly enrolled”. This correction has been made as of January 16, 2017.