Contributors Conflicts of interest br Acknowledgments This r
Conflicts of interest
Acknowledgments This research was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The views expressed herein are those IWR-1-endo of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policy or position of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Imperial College London (London, UK), or the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (London, UK). Data from the integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA) surveys are accessible through an application process from the National AIDS Research Institute website. We are grateful to FHI-India and the National AIDS Research Institute (Pune, India) for the IBBA data collection and to Karnataka Health Promotion Trust for data collection and analysis. We thank Lalit Dandona and Rakhi Dandona, lead investigators of the Guntur population-based HIV study, for provision of data from their study. We also thank Eric Demers, myosin did analyses to estimate model parameters; Sharmistha Mishra, Kate Mitchell, and Nadine Schur for their help with the figures; and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine for use of their high-performance computing facility.